We wanted to discover whether different eating patterns in obese and overweight patients affected how inflammation parameters and gut microbiota composition might change. We found some variation between groups of different weight. It's unclear what relates to what (in terms of weight, gut microbes and inflammation). The results are published in PLOS One.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Associations between dietary patterns, metabolic and inflammatory markers and gut microbiota are yet to be elucidated.

OBJECTIVES:

We aimed to characterize dietary patterns in overweight and obese subjects and evaluate the different dietary patterns in relation to metabolic and inflammatory variables as well as gut microbiota.

DESIGN:

Dietary patterns, plasma and adipose tissue markers, and gut microbiota were evaluated in a group of 45 overweight and obese subjects (6 men and 39 women). A group of 14 lean subjects were also evaluated as a reference group.

RESULTS:

Three clusters of dietary patterns were identified in overweight/obese subjects. Cluster 1 had the least healthy eating behavior (highest consumption of potatoes, confectionary and sugary drinks, and the lowest consumption of fruits that was associated also with low consumption of yogurt, and water). This dietary pattern was associated with the highest LDL cholesterol, plasma soluble CD14 (p = 0.01) a marker of systemic inflammation but the lowest accumulation of CD163+ macrophages with anti-inflammatory profile in adipose tissue (p = 0.05). Cluster 3 had the healthiest eating behavior (lower consumption of confectionary and sugary drinks, and highest consumption of fruits but also yogurts and soups). Subjects in this Cluster had the lowest inflammatory markers (sCD14) and the highest anti-inflammatory adipose tissue CD163+ macrophages. Dietary intakes, insulin sensitivity and some inflammatory markers (plasma IL6) in Cluster 3 were close to those of lean subjects. Cluster 2 was in-between clusters 1 and 3 in terms of healthfulness. The 7 gut microbiota groups measured by qPCR were similar across the clusters. However, the healthiest dietary cluster had the highest microbial gene richness, as evaluated by quantitative metagenomics.

CONCLUSION:

A healthier dietary pattern was associated with lower inflammatory markers as well as greater gut microbiota richness in overweight and obese subjects.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01314690.

Authors

Kong LC1, Holmes BA2, Cotillard A1, Habi-Rachedi F2, Brazeilles R3, Gougis S4, Gausserès N2, Cani PD5, Fellahi S6, Bastard JP6, Kennedy SP7, Doré J7, Ehrlich SD7, Zucker JD1, Rizkalla SW1, Clément K1.

Journal and Citation

PLOS One 9(10):e109434

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109434

Link: http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0109434

 

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